WRA Undertakes Flagship projects

WRA is undertaking 6 Capital projects towards achieving Vision 2030 and Sustainable Development Goals.

According to Vision 2030 pillar on water and sanitation, Kenya aims to build a just and cohesive society with social equity in a clean and secure environment through water and sanitation; to ensure improved water and sanitation are available and accessible to all.

SDGs 13, 14 and 15 deal warrant the Authority to:

Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts;

Conserve and sustainably use oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development;

Protect, restore, sustainable use of ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, combat desertification

 

They include:

  1. Implementation of Sub catchment management plans
  2. Construction of Rehabilitation of monitoring stations
  • Kikuyu Springs Conservation
  1. Nairobi River Restoration Program
  2. Drilling Exploratory boreholes (Marsabit)
  3. Lamu Ground Water Conservation

 

The six capital projects began in Mid-2016 and are scheduled to end on June 2017.

  1. Implementation of Sub catchment management plans

WRA has a role in building adaptive and disaster risk resilient communities in relation to Climate change effects of droughts. 

This is under implementation through the implementation of water infrastructure activities to increase water storage within the 6 WRUAs based in the 6 Catchment areas targeted for the Capital projects.

 

 

 

Name of WRUA

Regional Office

Subregion

County

ASAO

LVSCA

NorthernShoreline Nyando

Kisumu

Machinjoni

LVNCA

Elgon-Cherenganyi (Kitale)

Transnzoia

Olbanita

RVCA

Lake Baringo-Bogoria (Kabarnet)

Nakuru

Theta

Athi

UpperAthi

Kiambu

Enziu

Tana

Tiva/Tyaa (Kitui)

Kitui

Orai Mutia

ENNCA

Engare Narok –Melghis (Rumuruti)

Nyandarua***

  1. Construction & Rehabilitation of Surface water monitoring stations

The Construction and Rehabilitation of monitoring stations are done to ensure the availability of regular data on water flows. The project will involve two activities – the first one involves automating ten sites through installing multiparameter telemetric stations which allow for measurements and other data collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted real-time to receiving equipment for monitoring.

The second activity: Rehabilitation of 60 Regular gauging stations begins with fulfilling 

two prerequisites (which have been carried out):

Technical assessment and extraction of information from the Daily History (DH) files.

The major areas to focus on during the technical assessment are;

The assessment of the control itself, i.e., the hydraulic condition of the stations and its ability to provide a unique (unambiguous) relationship between the stage (water level) and the discharge and to which extent the control (and thereby the stage-discharge relationship) will remain stable is the most essential part of the assessment.

ii. Extracting necessary information from the DH files.

The actual rehabilitation of 60 RGSS set to involve any of the following activities (based on a need by case basis):

Replacement of gauge plates

Installation of struts and gauge plates

Establishment of a benchmark

In all cases, a cross-section and establishment of a benchmark (where not found) will be done

So far, WRA has 220 RGS stations in place.

 

 

 

 

 

Proposed sites for Automation of telemetric stations

Station ID

Region

River

Location

1lA03

LVSCA

Nyangores

 

Boment Centre

1HD09

LVSCA

Awach

Upstream of Kendu bay

1FG02

LVNCA

Yala

Yala Town

4EAO7

TANA

Mutonga

Meru Mate Road

4BE01

TANA

Maragua

Ichichi bridge

4DD 02

TANA

Thiba

Kutus

2B21

RVCA

Turkwell

Lodwar Bridge

3BA29

ATHI

Nairobi

Museum

3FO9

ATHI

Athi

Kibwezi Bridge

5DA07

ENNCA

Isiolo

Isiolo town water Intake

 

 

Proposed Stations for rehabilitation

Station ID

Region

River

Location/Subregion

3HA13

ACA

Sabaki

Coastal Athi

3KBO1

ACA

Umba

Coastal Athi

3LA05

ACA

Voi

Coastal Athi

3F07

ACA

Greater Kiboko

Middle Athi

3F09

ACA

Kibwezi

Middle Athi

3F06

ACA

Kibwezi

Middle Athi

3BA29

ACA

Nairobi

Nairobi

3BA32

ACA

Nairobi

Nairobi

3JI5C

ACA

Lumi

Nolturesh

3G002

ACA

Ngarelen

Nolturesh

Misc

ACA

Namanga

Nolturesh

3G001

ACA

Nolturesh

Nolturesh

3G003

ACA

Olchoro

Nolturesh

3G02

ACA

Tsavo

Nolturesh

3J17

ACA

Challa

Nolturesh

3DA02

ACA

Athi

Upper Athi

3BB12

ACA

Kamiti

Upper Athi

3BB11

ACA

Kiu

Upper Athi

3CBO5

ACA

Ndarugu

Upper Athi

3BCO8

ACA

Ruiru

Upper Athi

3BDO5

ACA

Thiririka

Upper Athi

ENNCA

 

 

 

 

 

5DA08

ENNCA

Isiolo

Isiolo

5ED01

ENNCA

Ewaso Ng’iro

Nanyuki

5BC02

ENNCA

NaroMoru

Nanyuki

5DA01

ENNCA

Ngare Nything

 

Nanyuki

5BC22

ENNCA

Sirimon

Nanyuki

5BE05

ENNCA

Teleswani

Nanyuki

5H01

ENNCA

Daua

Nanyuki

5AD01

ENNCA

Mutara

Rumuruti

5AB04

ENNCA

Pesi

Rumuruti

5AD02

ENNCA

Suguroi

Rumuruti

LVNCA

 

 

 

1FF03

LVNCA

Edzawa

Eldoret

1FE02

LVNCA

Yala

Eldoret

1AD02

LVNCA

Malakisi

Kitale

1DB01

LVNCA

Kuywa

Kitale

1BB02

LVNCA

Losorua

Kitale

1BB01

LVNCA

Nzoia

Kitale

1DA02

LVNCA

Nzoia

Kitale

1EB02

LVNCA

Isiukhu

Siaya

1DD01

LVNCA

Nzoia

Siaya

1AH01

LVNCA

Sio

Siaya

LAKE VICTORIA SOUTH CA

 

 

 

1KB05

LVSCA

Gucha-Migori

Kisii

KCO3

LVSCA

Migori

Kisii

KB01

LVSCA

Gucha Macalda

Kisii

1HBO5

LVSCA

Awach Seme

Kisumu

1GG01

LVSCA

Namuting

Kisumu

1HA11

LVSCA

Nyamasaria

Kisumu

1JC019

LVSCA

Kimugu

Mara-Sondu

1JF08

LVSCA

Kipsonoi

Mara-Sondu

1JD04

LVSCA

Yurith

Mara-Sondu

RIFT VALLEY CATCHMENT AREA

 

 

 

2EA1

RVCA

Maji Tamu

Kabarnet

2EG3

RVCA

Molo

Kabarnet

2C08

RVCA

Kerio

Kabarnet

2FC16

RVCA

Njoro

Naivasha

2FC13B

RVCA

Sewerage Effluent

Naivasha

2EB7

RVCA

Waseges

Naivasha

2K06

RVCA

Seyapei

Narok

2K04

RVCA

Ewaso Nyiro South

Narok

2K10

RVCA

Mosiro

Narok

2B28

RVCA

Weiwei

Kapenguria

2B32

RVCA

Muruny

Kapenguria

2B34

RVCA

Kotoruk

Kapenguria

TANA CATCHMENT AREA

 

 

 

4DC03

TCA

Rupingazi

Kerugoya

4DC611

TCA

Kapingazi

Kerugoya

4G01

TCA

Tana at Garissa

Garissa

4G02

TCA

Tana at Garsen

Garissa

4F20

TCA

Thangatha

Meru

4F09

TCA

Gura

Meru

4F19

TCA

Kathita

Meru

4F17

TCA

Thingithu

Meru

4AB06

TCA

Amboni

Muranga

4BE09

TCA

Maragua

Muranga

 

 

 

  1. Kikuyu Springs Aquifer Groundwater Protection

One of WRA’s key Strategic Objective is to “Improve the Protection of Water Resources within the country”. Based on this core function, WRA identifies and conserves groundwater resources under threat, amongst them, the Kikuyu Springs Aquifer.  This Aquifer is a significant public water source in the northwest of Nairobi area and hence vital water supply for the Capital City, Nairobi. 

Study of groundwater recharge to the Kikuyu springs

Land-use changes, the encroachment of the Ondiri Swamp and escalating groundwater abstraction are a source of concern for the long-term sustainability of the Kikuyu Springs as a public water supply source.  As a result of this, in 2011, WRA through Norken (I) Ltd., Engineering and Management Consultants carried out a study.

The objectives of this study were:-

To define and map the area or areas which constitute the recharge zone or zones for the Kikuyu Springs aquifer.

To quantify mean annual recharge to the recharge zone or zones, and describe parameters that are likely to lead to variation in natural recharge;

To describe the measures that should be put in place to protect the recharge area or areas from destructive land uses

To make recommendations as to whether the aquifer unit should be accorded “Special Aquifer” status with respect to the Water Resources Management Rules, 2007.

To define the limits of a groundwater conservation area or areas that might be gazetted so that the recharge areas or areas are protected in the future.

 

Findings of the study

The study showed that the Kikuyu Springs Aquifer extends over an area of 161 square kilometers, from Bathi Springs in the north to just beyond Nyakumu Swamp in the south.

Map 1. Proposed Groundwater Conservation Area (GCA) for the Kikuyu Springs Aquifer

It was noted that

The main Kikuyu Springs recharge rock is in Limuru although groundwater infiltrates way down into the Karura and Kabete areas, which form the second of the two main aquifers. 

A clear recharge path is developed between Bathi Springs in the north, through Kikuyu Springs to Kerarapon Springs south of the aquifer. 

The total annual recharge amounts to 13.2 Million Cubic Meters (MCM) against an abstraction of 6.7 MCM from boreholes and 2.3 MCM abstracted from Kikuyu Springs discharge.  Up to 68% of the annual recharge is abstracted, which should raise concern in view of the lack of a Reserve declared for the aquifer.

Abstraction in the northern zone will have more impact on the system than abstraction in the lower zone around Ondiri swamp and Kikuyu springs and should be regulated. 

The study finally recommended that;

Alternative water supply sources for the settlements in the main recharge zones of the aquifer are investigated. 

The recharge areas must be protected against degradation. 

A Reserve volume should be declared for the Kikuyu Springs Aquifer to regulate the amount of water being abstracted

Kikuyu Springs Aquifer Draft Groundwater Management Guidelines

WRA prepared the draft Management Guidelines after extensive stakeholder consultations from the proposed Groundwater Conservation Area (GCA), including water users, area Members of Parliament, Members of County Assembly, and other institutions. The GCA is established in accordance with the Water Act (2002) and the Water Resources Management Rules, 2007 (with amendments in 2012).

The Water Resources Management Rules, 2007 outline the process of identifying areas to be designated as groundwater protection and conservation areas. Part XI Rule 123(1) states that:

Pursuant to Sections 17 and 44 of the Act (Water Act 2002), the Authority may identify a catchment area, part of a catchment area or water resource to be identified as areas to be protected or designated as groundwater conservation areas if the Authority is satisfied that doing so is necessary for the protection of the water resource and its multiple uses.

Part D of the Sixth Schedule sets out the contents of management rules or plans related to a protected area or groundwater conservation area and may include:

Procedures to be applied for the management of the Protected Area or Groundwater Conservation Area;

Prohibited activities.

The objective of the GCA guidelines is to provide a framework under which groundwater use within the conservation area will be undertaken in a manner such that the desired future condition of the resource is fulfilled.

Consequently, the desired future condition of the GCA is summarized as follows:

Groundwater quality remains potable by Kenyan Standards (KEBS: KS 05-459: Part 1: 1996);

Annual renewable groundwater recharge is sustained at or over the year 2012 level, subject to climate change effects;

Annual groundwater abstraction does not exceed 70% of the total aquifer recharge.

Artesian pressure is maintained at a level that can sustain Ondiri Swamp and Kikuyu Springs.

Other groundwater-dependent ecosystems, here identified as wetlands, are protected.

WRA Achievements in regards to the gazettement of the Kikuyu Springs;

A gazette notice was published in the local dailies on 12th June 2013 with the aim of gazetting the Kikuyu Springs recharge areas as a groundwater protection zone and groundwater conservation areas. This raised several concerns from the public which required further clarification on the meaning and implications of gazettement to the communities living in the delineated areas proposed for gazettement.

A series of sensitization and consultative meetings have been held since then;

3 community sensitization meetings were held through Onkaru, Gitangu Gitathuro and Mweteta Water Resources Users Associations (WRUAs) between August and October 2013

On 14th March 2014 WRA held a consultative forum with key stakeholders at Wida Highway Motel

2 sensitization meetings were held between WRA and MCAs for Kikuyu, Lari, Kabete and Limuru Sub-County on September and October 2014

A consultative meeting between WRA and Kiambu Members of Parliament was held on 3rd December 2014 at the Intercontinental Hotel, where the MPs requested WRA to develop the Management Guidelines to be discussed with all involved stakeholders before the actual gazettement process takes place

A consultative meeting between WRA, the MCAs, and CECs from County Government of Kiambu was held on 17th January 2017 at the Kilimo Grand Resort Hotel, Thogoto

A three-day meeting shall be held on 31st January to 2nd February 2017 between WRA and a great number of stakeholders to extensively sensitize and exploit any issues before the actual gazettement. This meeting is also meant to adopt the draft Management Guidelines to be followed one the gazettement of the area is done.

 

 

4.Nairobi River Restoration Program

WRA as the Lead Agency in water resources management is mandated by the Water Act 2002 Section 8(1), among other tasks to regulate and protect water resources from adverse impacts; manage and protect water catchments; liaise with stakeholders for the better regulation and management of water resources. The Authority has made this possible through various Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approaches, which involve multi-faceted interventions to address the myriad of issues and challenges in water resources.  The Authority has been working closely with the various stakeholder groups including Water Resource Users Associations (WRUAs), Private Sector, County Governments, NGOs, Academia and Public Sector Agencies

In a bid to rehabilitate, restore and sustainably manage water resources within the Athi River basin, which includes Nairobi River and its tributaries, WRA developed the Athi River Restoration Programme (ARRP) which is a capital project planned to be implemented in five years at an estimated cost of Kenya Shillings 2.5 billion.

Following the strategic importance of Nairobi River Basin, WRA intends to spearhead the rehabilitation and restoration efforts of Nairobi River in the same vein as the Athi River Restoration program. Accordingly, WRA in collaboration with the Ministry will endeavor to mobilize the needed resources towards the implementation of this program. In this regard, the Ministry requested expert assistance from the US Government for this important initiative. The US Water Partnership has already committed to supporting by engaging two consultants to work with the Government of Kenya.

The Nairobi River Basin comprises of 3 main rivers: Ngong, Nairobi, and Mathare. The rivers join east of Nairobi and meet River Athi, eventually flowing to the Indian Ocean.  Other tributaries of Nairobi River Basin include; Kamiti river (Gathara-ini), Rui Ruaka, Karura Ruiru, and Kirichwa. 

The rivers are mostly narrow and highly polluted. Currently, about 56 percent of the city residents live in 46 highly congested informal and middle-class settlements mainly located along the Nairobi River banks. The Rivers are polluted with uncollected garbage; human waste from informal settlements; industrial wastes in the form of gaseous emissions, liquid effluents, agrochemicals, petrochemicals, metals, and over-flowing sewers.

The most worrying trend is the industrial and medical waste harboring toxic chemicals and heavy metals that end up in the Indian Ocean. The domestic and international tourism sectors are not spared with visitors getting harboring concerns about the safety of their favorite seafood.

The Authority intends to carry out the following interventions in a bid to rehabilitate the Nairobi River:

      Way forward

  1. Convening of a meeting to deliberate on the following issues:
  • Presentation and Discussions on the NRRP
  • Formation of Task Teams (TTs) to address the various subprograms and concretize actions for the following task areas, among others
  • Development of comprehensive Integrated solid waste management system for riparian communities
  • Identification of options and defining estimated costs for repairing and installing sewerage and associated infrastructure
  • Development of a Master Plan for economic and residential uses of the riparian zone, in concert with local stakeholders, communities and the private sector
  • Identification of Water Quality improvement and Pollution Control interventions to address the following challenges:
  • Pollution from agrochemicals (fertilizers and pesticide residues from farmlands)
  • Nairobi City Water and Sewerage Company’s sewerage treatment facilities (Dandora, and Kariobangi discharging into Nairobi River and Kahawa west ponds discharging into Kiu River
  • Kiambu Water and Sewerage Company’s sewerage treatment facility discharging into Riara River
  • Identification of Conservation initiatives to address the following challenges:
  • Soil erosion from overgrazed land, degraded catchments and infrastructural developments e.g road networks
  • Unmanaged storm waters from urban centers
  • Wetland and riparian restoration
  • River training and bank protection
  • Development of ToRs for the Task Teams
  • Seeking commitments from those in attendance in terms of supporting the program – receiving proposals and pledges in support of the program
  • Formation of a Secretariat to coordinate the program
  1. Holding a Workshop to:

Receive and discuss work plans and budgets from the Task Teams

Prepare a combined work plan and budget for the program activities

Prepare work schedules

  1. Launch of the Nairobi River Basin Restoration and Rehabilitation Programme:

Presentation of the program

Presentation of the work plan and budget

Inauguration of the program